The third planet to be founded (although the Book describes that Libran and Leonis were both founded at the same time) by the Third Lord of Kobol, the Wise Apollo, Libran has played pivotal roles in the history of the Twelve Colonies. The planet itself is more arid than others, being the closest of the Twelve to the Cyrannus star, with the equatorial band being particularly dry and hot. Libran also does not experience seasons due to the lack of an axial tilt. Libran is also the most sparsely populated Colony, numbering less than half the population of Caprica.
The unique feature that makes Libran famous throughout the Twelve Colonies is the Sanctuary of Apollo, located some twenty kilometres beyond the boundaries of Lysandion, the capital. Actually a community in itself, the Sanctuary was originally founded by the Order of Apollo, Priests and Priestesses of the Third Lord, as haven away from the prying eyes of their brethren on Scorpia. The Order was unique amongst the Twelve Orders, in that they operated on a strange dichotomy - while they believed in the existence of the Twelve, they viewed the Universe and all its wonders and mysteries with an oddly rational light (or to them, with wisdom). As time passed, the Sanctuary became more and more of a scientific institution, and the religious influence of the Order subsided. In time, the Sanctuary became the single greatest collection of archived knowledge and research facilities known to the Twelve Colonies; its research output outstripped those of entire Colonies. Students and teachers from all over came to study, teach, argue, and experiment in its halls. The Sanctuary is also an important medical institution with first rate (and often experimental) facilities and treatment regimes as a consequence of the Order's early role as healers.
The general Libran population tend to be more cerebral than other Colonies - they place great weight in intellectual prowess while physical prowess comes in as a bonus if you have it, but you're not disabled without it either. Perhaps the greatest "crime" in Libran society is to be dumb, and the greatest insult also. Librans also tend to be logical and methodical, sometimes appearing cold. They are not an emotionally expressive people but arguments on topics of interest have been known to get rather heated. They are also non-religious in general, although they hold no animosity towards their more devout cousins. Librans sometimes find it difficult to communicate with others as they think and talk in abstract ways while their thought runs along tracks that others do not - they are often misunderstood, and often misunderstand.